Burgas Province (also transliterated Bourgas) is located in Southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. Its capital is the city of Burgas. It is the largest province by area and fourth by population. It comprises of 11 municipalities: Aitos, Burgas, Kameno, Karnobat, Malko Tarnovo, Nesebar (Nessebar), Pomorie, Primorsko, Ruen, Sozopol, Sredets, Sungurlare and Tsarevo.
The geo-strategical situation of the region is a factor of national importance well acknowledged by several countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. Here goes the crossing of both traditional and newbuilt axes of economical and political interests as follows: Europe-Near East-Asia; Europe-Middle East-Asia; Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Western Europe.
Burgas region is an important "Entrance/Exit" area. Around 74 % of the annual import/export of the country runs exlusively through the Port of Burgas. Main factors influencing the territorial localizations are: availabale nature key-factors of economic importance such as ores and minerals used as a raw material for the industrial development and in the construction industry; a wide ground variety considered to be an important precondition for agriculture development; Black Sea coastal zones, thermal mineral springs, conditions for recreation and rural tourism in the regional uplands, evaluated as a developing factor of tourism and health resort work; availability of highly skilled labour experienced in main production branches of the regional economy; good level of technical, social and market infrastructure.
Burgas is a successor of the Ancient Greek city of Pyrgos, founded by colonists from Apolonia as a military and observational post against the other important settlement in the region — Mesembria.
Later on, during the rule of the Ancient Romans, Burgas was known as Deultum, and was established as a military colony for veterans by Vespasian. In the Middle Ages, a small fortress called Pirgos was erected on the place and was most probably used as a watchtower. It was only in the 17th century that a settlement named Ahelo-Pirgas grew in the modern area of the city. It was later renamed to Bourgas and had only about 3,000 inhabitants, most of them Greeks at the time of the Liberation.
Later, it became a major centre on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and a city of well-developed industry and trade.
Burgas, unlike many other Bulgarian cities, was not much affected by Communist-type urbanization and has kept many of its 19th and early 20th century architecture. Today Burgas also holds annual national exhibitions and international festivals and has a vibrant student population of over 6,000 that add to the city's appeal.